Advanced Training of AI Systems - Learning Paradigms
Learning Strategies or Paradigms refer to the higher-level strategies that an AI model can use to enhance its learning process, often regardless of the learning type being used. This category includes: Transfer Learning, Multi-task Learning, Active Learning and Semi-Supervised Learning.
The advent of artificial intelligence (AI) has brought about several learning paradigms that are reshaping how machines learn and interact with data. These paradigms push the boundaries of traditional supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning methodologies, providing an array of strategies to improve AI's learning capabilities.
- Transfer Learning: This paradigm is akin to applying past knowledge to new but related problems, much like we humans do. In the AI world, transfer learning involves training a model on one task, and then reusing parts of that learned model for a different but related task. This drastically reduces computational costs and can significantly improve performance, especially when dealing with large-scale neural networks and a limited amount of data for the new task. Read our article on Transfer Learning here.
- Multi-task Learning: This paradigm is about 'killing two (or more) birds with one stone'. In multi-task learning, the AI model is designed to solve multiple related tasks concurrently, with the objective of improving the generalisation of the model. The central idea is that by learning tasks in parallel, the model can leverage commonalities and differences among the tasks to enhance its learning efficiency and accuracy.
- Active Learning: If AI could choose its homework, that would be active learning. Here, the learning algorithm itself selects the examples it wants to learn from, usually those from which it thinks it can learn the most. This can be particularly useful when labelling data is expensive or time-consuming, as it ensures the most informative examples are prioritised.
- Semi-Supervised Learning: Imagine learning to identify birds with a guide book that only labels a few species, and you're left to infer the rest. That's semi-supervised learning in a nutshell. It involves using a small amount of labelled data and a large amount of unlabelled data. The model leverages the labelled data to learn a general structure, and then applies this structure to classify the unlabelled data. This approach is beneficial when you have a lot of data, but labelling it is costly or impractical.
- Self-Supervised Learning: What if a model could generate its own training data? Self-supervised learning is a type of learning where the model generates its own labels from the input data. For instance, in natural language processing, a model might predict the next word in a sentence, using the previous words as both input and labels. This approach allows a model to learn from vast amounts of unlabelled data, harnessing the power of unsupervised learning while still providing some of the directionality of supervised learning.
- Few-shot/One-shot/Zero-shot Learning: These are approaches designed for situations where data is scarce. They aim to build models that make accurate predictions with few (few-shot), one (one-shot), or even no (zero-shot) examples of each class. For example, in zero-shot learning, the model might learn to recognise a cat without ever seeing a cat before, based on descriptions and comparisons to other animals it has seen.