Artificial Intelligence
5 mins

Understanding Neural Networks in AI


Neural networks are an essential concept in artificial intelligence (AI) that often appear complex and challenging to grasp. However, understanding their fundamental principles can help demystify their role in AI. In this blog, we will break down the concept of neural networks and explain their importance in a straightforward and accessible manner.

What are Neural Networks?

A neural network is a computational model inspired by the human brain's structure and function. It consists of interconnected nodes or neurons organised into layers. These networks are designed to recognise patterns, learn from data, and make decisions or predictions, much like the human brain does.

Neural networks are particularly useful in AI because they can adapt and improve as they process more data. This ability to learn from experience allows AI systems to become more accurate and efficient over time.

Structure of a Neural Network

Neural networks are made up of three main layers:

  1. Input Layer: The input layer receives data and passes it on to the next layer. Each node in this layer represents an individual feature or variable from the input data.
  2. Hidden Layer(s): The hidden layer(s) are where the actual processing and learning occur. These layers contain nodes that perform mathematical operations on the data received from the input layer, extracting valuable information and patterns.
  3. Output Layer: The output layer is the final layer in the network, responsible for providing the result or prediction based on the information processed in the hidden layers.

The nodes in each layer are interconnected through weighted connections, which determine the strength and influence of one node over another. These weights are adjusted during the learning process to minimise errors and improve the network's performance.

Different Types of Neural Networks

There are several types of neural networks, each designed to tackle specific tasks or problems. Some of the most common types include:

  1. Feedforward Neural Networks (FNN): These are the simplest type of neural networks where information flows in one direction from the input layer to the output layer. FNNs are commonly used for tasks like regression, classification, and pattern recognition.
  2. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN): CNNs are designed for processing grid-like data, such as images. They use convolutional layers to scan input data for local patterns, making them particularly effective in tasks like image recognition and computer vision.
  3. Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN): RNNs are specialised for processing sequences of data, making them ideal for tasks involving time series or natural language. They possess loops that allow information to persist, enabling them to maintain a "memory" of past inputs.

Coding a working Neural Network

A neural network is a computational model created by code. Developers write code to define the structure, connections, and learning process of the neural network. The code defines how the network processes input data, adjusts its weights, and ultimately makes predictions or decisions. Neural networks can be created using various programming languages, such as Python, C++, Java, or R. Python is particularly popular for developing neural networks due to its simplicity, readability, and the availability of powerful libraries and frameworks specifically designed for machine learning and AI.

In addition to creating the neural network, the code will need to perform several other tasks to ensure the effective functioning of the AI system:

  1. Data collection and preprocessing: Collect and clean the data that will be used to train and test the neural network. This step may involve handling missing values, normalizing data, encoding categorical variables, and splitting the data into training, validation, and testing sets.
  2. Defining the neural network architecture: Specify the structure of the neural network, including the number of layers, the type of layers (e.g., dense, convolutional, recurrent), and the number of neurons (or units) in each layer. You will also need to choose the activation functions for each layer.
  3. Configuring the learning process: Select an appropriate loss function that measures the difference between the neural network's predictions and the actual target values. Choose an optimization algorithm (such as gradient descent or a variant) to adjust the weights of the neural network to minimize the loss function.
  4. Training the neural network: Feed the training data into the neural network and adjust the weights iteratively using the selected optimisation algorithm. This process may involve setting hyperparameters such as learning rate, batch size, and the number of training epochs.
  5. Evaluating the neural network: Assess the performance of the neural network using the validation and testing datasets. This evaluation helps identify potential issues, such as overfitting or underfitting, and informs decisions about fine-tuning the model.
  6. Fine-tuning and model selection: Based on the evaluation results, you may need to adjust the neural network architecture, hyperparameters, or training process to improve its performance.
  7. Deploying the neural network: Integrate the trained neural network into your AI system, enabling it to process new data, make predictions, and support decision-making.
  8. Monitoring and maintenance: Continuously monitor the performance of the deployed neural network and update it as needed. This may involve retraining the model with new data, updating the architecture, or addressing any emerging issues.

By performing these tasks, you can develop an effective AI system powered by a neural network tailored to the specific problem you want to solve.

Why are Neural Networks Important in AI?

Neural networks play a critical role in AI due to their remarkable ability to learn, adapt, and make predictions. Some reasons why they are essential include:

  1. Pattern Recognition: Neural networks excel at identifying patterns and trends in complex, noisy data. This skill is valuable in numerous applications, such as image recognition, natural language processing, and fraud detection.
  2. Adaptability: Neural networks can learn and adjust their performance as they encounter new data. This adaptability allows AI systems to improve and handle a wide range of scenarios.
  3. Robustness: Neural networks can still provide accurate predictions even when faced with incomplete or noisy data, making them robust and reliable.
  4. Scalability: Neural networks can handle large datasets and complex problems, making them suitable for a wide range of applications.


Neural networks are a vital component of AI, offering unparalleled pattern recognition, adaptability, robustness, and scalability. By understanding their basic structure and function, we can appreciate the potential of neural networks to drive innovation and revolutionise industries.

___ An example

Here's an analogy between a multi-layered neural network and a team of high school teachers:

Let's imagine a high school where the curriculum is set up such that each year, students dive deeper into a subject, say, a foreign language. This can be compared to the layers in a neural network.

1. Input layer: Elementary School

Just as a neural network starts with an input layer, a student's education begins in elementary school, where they are introduced to the basics of a subject. In this case, they start learning the fundamentals of a foreign language such as Spanish, French, or German. The elementary school teachers play the role of the input layer, taking in raw data (students with no language knowledge) and teaching them basic skills and vocabulary.

2. Hidden layers: Middle and High School

As the student progresses to middle school, their teachers start building on the foundation laid by the elementary school teachers. They teach more complex grammar, sentence structure, and expose the students to native speakers and literature. This could be seen as analogous to the hidden layers in a neural network, which take the input, process it, and pass on more refined information to the next layer.

In high school, the subject matter becomes even more advanced. The students might start studying literature, poetry, or start writing essays in the foreign language. This could be compared to further hidden layers in the neural network, which build on previous layers to understand more complex patterns in the data.

3. Output layer: Final Examination or Proficiency

Finally, the senior year teacher has the task of preparing students for the final exam or a language proficiency test, the real-world task the students need to perform. This teacher reviews, refines, and extends all the previous years' teachings, making sure the students are fully prepared. This is like the output layer of the neural network, which makes the final prediction or decision based on all the processing and learning done by the previous layers.

Just as the neural network learns and refines its understanding and predictions with each layer, students learn and build on their knowledge with each year of school. And like a well-trained neural network, a well-educated student will be able to successfully perform their task: communicate effectively in a foreign language.

Overfitting in the context of a neural network is like a student who has become overly specialized in a specific topic to the point that they can't adapt to new information or slightly different situations.

Imagine a high school Spanish teacher who, in preparation for the final exam, focuses only on a very specific set of Spanish literature. The students study these works in such granular detail that they can recite them perfectly and understand every nuanced meaning. However, this extreme focus leaves them unprepared for the exam, which includes other types of literature, idioms, and cultural references that they haven't covered.

This is similar to a neural network overfitting to the training data. The network becomes so specialized in the training data that it performs poorly on new, unseen data (the test data), just like the students who only studied a narrow set of literature did poorly on the more general Spanish exam.

To avoid overfitting, we can apply regularization techniques in machine learning, which can be compared to removing some teachers (or specific teaching methods) in our analogy.

Suppose we recognize that focusing too deeply on one author's works is causing our students to be unprepared for the broader exam. We might reduce the emphasis on this narrow area, instead introducing a wider variety of authors and contexts to the students, even if they won't master each one to the same depth. By doing this, the students will have a broader understanding of the language and be better prepared for the more diverse exam.

In machine learning, techniques like dropout regularization are akin to this diversification. They randomly "drop out" some of the neurons (think of these as removing some specific teachings) during training. This prevents the model from relying too heavily on any one feature, and forces it to find more general patterns in the data.

Just like our students now having a broader understanding of the language, the neural network has a more generalized understanding of the data, and is less likely to overfit to the training set. It's better equipped to perform well on unseen data, just as the students are better prepared for the diversity of the actual exam.

Focussing on Dropout : 

Imagine a high school where a few specific teachers are exceptionally good at explaining complex concepts in a foreign language. As a result, the students may start relying heavily on these teachers, almost to the point of depending on them to learn. They become less able to learn from the other teachers because the teaching style is different or not as engaging.

However, let's say these particular teachers have to occasionally miss school due to various reasons (akin to "dropping out"). This forces the students to rely on the teachings from the other teachers, adapting to different teaching styles and information, broadening their understanding of the subject, and decreasing their dependence on a particular teacher.

This is similar to the "dropout" technique in neural networks. During training, dropout randomly turns off (or "drops out") some neurons in the neural network. This means that the network can't rely on specific neurons (analogous to the high-performing teachers) to get the right answer. Instead, the network has to learn more robust and general patterns that don't depend on a few specific neurons.

Through this "dropout" process, the network becomes better at generalizing its learning and hence is less likely to overfit to the training data. Similarly, the students in our analogy learn to adapt and gain knowledge from a variety of sources, making them more resilient and flexible in their understanding of the subject matter. They will not be over-dependent on a few teachers and can perform well in exams even when their favorite teacher isn't around to explain the material.

April 26, 2023

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